James MacKillop. The Behavioral Economics and Neuroeconomics of Alcohol Use Disorders

Abstract   Behavioral economics and neuroeconomics bring together perspectives and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand decision making and choice behavior. Extending an operant behavioral theoretical framework, these perspectives have increasingly been applied to understand the alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and this review surveys the theory, methods, and findings from this approach. The focus is on 3 key behavioral economic concepts: delay discounting (...

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Peter A. Corning. Synergy And Self-Organization In The Evolution Of Complex Systems

Synergy of various kinds has played a significant creative role in evolution; it has been a prodigious source of evolutionary novelty. Elsewhere it has been proposed that the functional (selective) advantages associated with various forms of synergistic phenomena have been an important cause of the "progressive" evolution of complex systems over time. Underlying the many specific steps in the complexification process, a common functional principle has been operative. Recent mathematical modellin...

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Dennis A. V. Dittrich. Wages, Length of Relationship and Bargaining Power: An experimental study in a world of complete contracts

To explain potential sources of wage rigidity this article analyzes a model of reciprocal kindness applied to a repeated ultimatum game with changing and nonzero conflict payoffs. The model is also tested in a laboratory experiment. The results are compatible with the rentsharing approach to wage rigidity. Wages adjust to 'market pressure' but are less flexible when employees demand their wages, i. e. when they are in a relatively strong bargaining position.

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Bruno S. Frey. Punishment and beyond

This paper argues that the Economics of Crime concentrates too much on punishment as a policy to fight crime, which is unwise for several reasons. There are important instances in which punishment simply cannot reduce crime. Several feasible alternatives to punishment exist, such as offering positive incentives or handing out awards for law abiding behavior. These alternative approaches tend to create a positive sum environment. When people appreciate living in a society that is to a large exten...

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Peter A. Corning. Biological Adaption In Human Societies: A ‘Basic Needs’ Approach

The ground-zero premise (so to speak) of the biological sciences is the assumption that survival and reproduction is the basic, continuing, inescapable problem for all living organisms; life is at bottom a “survival enterprise.” Whatever may be our perceptions, aspirations, or illusions, this tap-root assumption is applicable to the human species as well. Survival is the “paradigmatic problem” for all human societies; it is a prerequisite for any other, more exalted objectives. A key concept in ...

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Boris Hirsch, Elke Jahn, Claus Schnabel. The Cyclical Behaviour of Employers’ Monopsony Power and Workers’ Wages

This paper investigates the behaviour of employers’ monopsony power and workers’ wages over the business cycle. Using German administrative linked employer-employee data for the years 1985-2010 and an estimation framework based on duration models, we construct a time series of the firm-level labour supply elasticity and estimate its relationship to the aggregate unemployment rate. In line with theory, we find that firms possess more monopsony power during economic downturns, which shows to be ro...

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